Übersetzung für 'aurora' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung für 'aurora' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Aurora (lat. ‚Morgenröte') steht für: Aurora (Mythologie), römische Göttin der Morgenröte; Morgenröte (Synonym), rötliche Färbung des Osthimmels vor dem.
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A geomagnetic storm causes the auroral ovals north and south to expand, and bring the aurora to lower latitudes. The aurora can be seen best at this time, which is called magnetic midnight.
Auroras seen within the auroral oval may be directly overhead, but from farther away, they illuminate the poleward horizon as a greenish glow, or sometimes a faint red, as if the Sun were rising from an unusual direction.
Auroras also occur poleward of the auroral zone as either diffuse patches or arcs,  which can be subvisual.
Auroras are occasionally seen in latitudes below the auroral zone, when a geomagnetic storm temporarily enlarges the auroral oval.
Large geomagnetic storms are most common during the peak of the year sunspot cycle or during the three years after the peak. An electron spirals gyrates about a field line at an angle that is determined by its velocity vectors, parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the local geomagnetic field vector B.
This angle is known as the "pitch angle" of the particle. The distance, or radius, of the electron from the field line at any time is known as its Larmor radius.
The pitch angle increases as the electron travels to a region of greater field strength nearer to the atmosphere.
Other particles that do not mirror enter the atmosphere and contribute to the auroral display over a range of altitudes. Other types of auroras have been observed from space, e.
These are relatively infrequent and poorly understood. Other interesting effects occur such as flickering aurora, "black aurora" and subvisual red arcs.
In addition to all these, a weak glow often deep red observed around the two polar cusps, the field lines separating the ones that close through the Earth from those that are swept into the tail and close remotely.
Images of auroras are significantly more common today than in the past due to the increase in the use of digital cameras that have high enough sensitivities.
Due to the different color spectra present, and the temporal changes occurring during the exposure, the results are somewhat unpredictable.
Different layers of the film emulsion respond differently to lower light levels, and choice of a film can be very important. Longer exposures superimpose rapidly changing features, and often blanket the dynamic attribute of a display.
Higher sensitivity creates issues with graininess. David Malin pioneered multiple exposure using multiple filters for astronomical photography, recombining the images in the laboratory to recreate the visual display more accurately.
Predictive techniques are also used, to indicate the extent of the display, a highly useful tool for aurora hunters. Early work on the imaging of the auroras was done in by the University of Saskatchewan using the SCR radar.
Aurora during a geomagnetic storm that was most likely caused by a coronal mass ejection from the Sun on 24 May , taken from the ISS.
Auroras frequently appear either as a diffuse glow or as "curtains" that extend approximately in the east—west direction. At some times, they form "quiet arcs"; at others, they evolve and change constantly.
These are called "active aurora". The most distinctive and brightest are the curtain-like auroral arcs. In situ particle measurements confirm that auroral electrons are guided by the geomagnetic field, and spiral around them while moving toward Earth.
The similarity of an auroral display to curtains is often enhanced by folds within the arcs. Arcs can fragment or break up into separate, at times rapidly changing, often rayed features that may fill the whole sky.
These are the discrete auroras, which are at times bright enough to read a newspaper by at night. The diffuse aurora, though, is a relatively featureless glow sometimes close to the limit of visibility.
Diffuse auroras are often composed of patches whose brightness exhibits regular or near-regular pulsations. The pulsation period can be typically many seconds, so is not always obvious.
Often there black aurora i. A typical auroral display consists of these forms appearing in the above order throughout the night. X-ray emissions, originating from the particles associated with auroras, have also been detected.
The charged particles discharge when particles from the Sun hit the inversion layer, creating the noise. The varying intensity of the solar wind produces effects of different magnitudes, but includes one or more of the following physical scenarios.
The details of these phenomena are not fully understood. However it is clear that the prime source of auroral particles is the solar wind feeding the magnetosphere, the reservoir containing the radiation zones, and temporarily magnetically trapped, particles confined by the geomagnetic field, coupled with particle acceleration processes.
The immediate cause of the ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents leading to auroral emissions was discovered in , when a pioneering rocket flight from Fort Churchill in Canada revealed a flux of electrons entering the atmosphere from above.
Electrons mainly responsible for diffuse and pulsating auroras have, in contrast, a smoothly falling energy distribution, and an angular pitch-angle distribution favouring directions perpendicular to the local magnetic field.
Pulsations were discovered to originate at or close to the equatorial crossing point of auroral zone magnetic field lines.
Both incoming electrons and protons may be involved. Excitation energy is lost within the atmosphere by the emission of a photon, or by collision with another atom or molecule:.
Oxygen is unusual in terms of its return to ground state: Collisions with other atoms or molecules absorb the excitation energy and prevent emission.
Because the highest atmosphere has a higher percentage of oxygen and is sparsely distributed such collisions are rare enough to allow time for oxygen to emit red.
Collisions become more frequent progressing down into the atmosphere, so that red emissions do not have time to happen, and eventually even green light emissions are prevented.
Green is the most common color. Then comes pink, a mixture of light green and red, followed by pure red, then yellow a mixture of red and green , and finally, pure blue.
Bright auroras are generally associated with Birkeland currents Schield et al. The ionosphere is an ohmic conductor , so some consider that such currents require a driving voltage, which an, as yet unspecified, dynamo mechanism can supply.
Electric field probes in orbit above the polar cap suggest voltages of the order of 40, volts, rising up to more than , volts during intense magnetic storms.
Ionospheric resistance has a complex nature, and leads to a secondary Hall current flow. By a strange twist of physics, the magnetic disturbance on the ground due to the main current almost cancels out, so most of the observed effect of auroras is due to a secondary current, the auroral electrojet.
An auroral electrojet index measured in nanotesla is regularly derived from ground data and serves as a general measure of auroral activity.
Kristian Birkeland  deduced that the currents flowed in the east—west directions along the auroral arc, and such currents, flowing from the dayside toward approximately midnight were later named "auroral electrojets" see also Birkeland currents.
During magnetic storms , in particular, flows can be several times faster; the interplanetary magnetic field IMF may also be much stronger.
Joan Feynman deduced in the s that the long-term averages of solar wind speed correlated with geomagnetic activity. The solar wind and magnetosphere consist of plasma ionized gas , which conducts electricity.
The strength of the current depends on a the rate of relative motion, b the strength of the magnetic field, c the number of conductors ganged together and d the distance between the conductor and the magnetic field, while the direction of flow is dependent upon the direction of relative motion.
Dynamos make use of this basic process "the dynamo effect " , any and all conductors, solid or otherwise are so affected, including plasmas and other fluids.
The IMF originates on the Sun, linked to the sunspots , and its field lines lines of force are dragged out by the solar wind.
That alone would tend to line them up in the Sun-Earth direction, but the rotation of the Sun angles them at Earth by about 45 degrees forming a spiral in the ecliptic plane , known as the Parker spiral.
The field lines passing Earth are therefore usually linked to those near the western edge "limb" of the visible Sun at any time.
However, this process is hampered by the fact that plasmas conduct readily along magnetic field lines, but less readily perpendicular to them.
Energy is more effectively transferred by temporary magnetic connection between the field lines of the solar wind and those of the magnetosphere.
Unsurprisingly this process is known as magnetic reconnection. As already mentioned, it happens most readily when the interplanetary field is directed southward, in a similar direction to the geomagnetic field in the inner regions of both the north magnetic pole and south magnetic pole.
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Aurora auf dem Jupitermond Io. Falschfarbenbild von Infrarotaurora auf Saturn. False-colour image of infrared aurora on Saturn.
Infrared aurora borealis of Saturn over its polar hexagonal cloud pattern and vortex. Saturn with ultraviolet aurorae photographed with the STIS of the hubble space telescope.
Saturn with UV aurora overlaid onto visible spectrum image. Composite image from shots in visible planet, aurora , ultraviolet aurora and infrared light rings of Uranus.
Peder Balke , Oil on canvas. German stamp issued in Hungarian stamp issued in Soviet stamp issued in Kristian Birkelands Experiment zur Herkunft der Polarlichter.
Area of northern lights. Aurora-like phenomenon after high-altitude nuclear explosion.